In the 1950s there was a very successful school for community organizers. Highlander Education Center in Tennessee.
Founded in the 30s by Communists and Quakers it was funded in the 50s by several pro-civil rights unions. It also got funding from the few incipient civil rights granting organizations.
Highlander trained all of the major civil rights organizers and leaders.
Part of the organizers’ training was to create cohesion among protesters. This was done with songs and chants.
I was in demonstrations and protests from the late 50s until the early 1980s. We always sang songs and chants. The most popular song was: "We shall overcome." Later in the hippie days a popular chant was:" Gimme an F." From a song by Country Joe. The F originally stand stood for F I S H. It changed. The chant sounded like an army Sergeant's marching chant.
I have gone to protests and demonstrations since the mid-1990s and today there is only one chant: " What do we want?" The response depends on the protest. "We want clean clothes" should be the response from the squalid Occupy movement. Just one endless mindless chant.
So Highlander has failed. The chanting today is limited to a child's potty training mantra.