Having read much about Holland, especially the work of Jonathan Israel, I am very aware that the Dutch conquered England in 1688. It was the biggest naval offensive up to that time and the biggest until the Normandy Landing in 1944.
After the Dutch put William of Orange and his wife Mary Queen of Scots on the throne, the two voluntarily agreed to a proposal offered by Parliament to conditions that gave the Brits, via Parliament, a series of rights. It is known as the English Bill of Rights of 1689.
We Americans have important reasons to know about this Bill of Rights, several of our own Bill of Rights provisions came directly from those offered by Parliament and agreed to by the new British Crown, William and Mary.
Here are four:
“*That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defence suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law;
*That election of members of Parliament ought to be free;
*That the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament;
*That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted;”
There are differences in our American version, but the source and the language are stunningly similar.
I hadn’t know about this Bill of Rights except for the Internet search engines, since this is not taught in even the best history classes. Thank the gods of commerce for bringing us this direct reach into history.
I and every historian of competence benefit from this great direct source.